There are two primary types of eclipse which can be viewed from Earth, a Lunar Eclipse and a Solar Eclipse
Definition of an Eclipse
An eclipse is the total or partial obscuring of one celestial body by another. It may occur when one celestial body passes in front of another therefore cutting off some or all of its light. It may also occur when a celestial body passes through all or part off the shadow of another celestial body.
Types of Eclipse -Earth - Moon - Sun system - Lunar Eclipses and Solar Eclipses
Eclipses of the Sun / Solar Eclipse - There are four types of solar eclipse - A Solar eclipse can be Total, Annular, Partial or Hybrid
Eclipse of the Moon / Lunar Eclipses - Astronomers recognise three basic types of lunar eclipse - Total, Partial and Penumbral
However there is a rare forth variation known as a Total Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
Total Lunar Eclipse [click image to enlarge] Eclipse of the Moon, or Lunar Eclipse
Total Solar Eclipse [click image to enlarge] Eclipse of the Sun, or Solar Eclipse
An amazing coincidence that Total Solar Eclipses actually occur
Selenehelion or Selenelion Phenomena – sometimes called a Horizontal Eclipse
Lunar eclipses occurring just before sunrise or just after sunset produce an amazing phenomenon
A Selenehelion or selenelion event occurs during a Lunar Eclipse and can only be viewed just before sunset or just after sunrise when it is possible to simultaneously view the sun rising in the east and the eclipsed full moon setting in the west, both at the same time, appearing just above the horizon at opposite points in the sky. This has led to the event sometimes being referred to as a Horizontal Eclipse. It occurs during every lunar eclipse at all those places on the Earth where it is sunrise or sunset at the time of the eclipse. The reddened light that reaches the Moon comes from all the simultaneous sunrises and sunsets on the Earth and from the atmosphere of Earth bending light inwards towards the Moon.
The phenomena is not a type of eclipse, nor a sub classification of any type of eclipse, it is simple a phenomena which occurs during a lunar eclipse just before sunset or just after sunrise.
This phenomenon may seem like an impossibility - to be able to see both the Sun and Moon in the sky at the same time during a lunar eclipse. How is it possible? Depending on the observer’s location there is short window of one to a few minutes when it is possible to simultaneously view the sun rising in the east and the eclipsed full moon setting in the west. One or both bodies may actually be below the horizon but atmospheric refraction causes astronomical objects to appear higher in the sky than they are in reality.
A selenehelion phenomenon is best observed from high ground with clear unobstructed vision towards both ends of the horizon. Hills, mountains, or high ridges are all good vantage points to view this spectacular sight.
Other Planets and Moons can also have Eclipses - The moons of Mars - Phobos and Demois