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EclipseGeeks.com - All you ever wanted to know about eclipses and other celstial bodies

2015 Total Lunar Eclipse, 28 September

The Total Lunar Eclipse of September 2015 is the fourth and final eclipse of the year.

 

It is also a Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipse (which are relatively rare). The next one does not occur until 2033

and it is the end of Tetrad season: A Tetrad season consists of four consecutive Total Lunar Eclipses.

The next Tetrad sequence doesn't occur until 25 April 2032

 

The September 2015 Total Lunar lags behind by two weeks,

the Partial Solar Eclipse,13 September 2015 March 2015.

Lunar Eclipse at sunset (moonrise)

central and west USA; central and west Canada, central and north Mexico. 

in brief

The penumbra phase of the eclipse begins in parts of central USA and Canada with the moon below the horizon.

 

From some parts of western USA and Canada, the partial eclipse phase begins when the Moon is below the horizon. However the Total Eclipse phase is visible.  

 

More details below.

Lunar Eclipse at sunrise (moonset)

 

central and eastern Europe; central Africa; Middle East; central/east Asia.

 

Click Earth view World map to enlarge.

Earth View World Map; 02hrs 47mins  28 September 2015

Earth diagram shows shadow of Moon at 02hrs 47mins 07.5secs UT/GMT

28 September 2015 when the eclipse will be at maximum mid-eclipse.

World view map, Total Lunar Eclipse, 28 September 2015, Eclipse Contacts of varying Visibility

U3: Eclipse at Moonset:

Sunrise

Eclipse at Moonrise:

Sunset

 

September 2015 Lunar Eclipse

Visibility Eclipse at Moonrise / Sunset

 

P1: The penumbra phase of the eclipse begins a few moments after the Moon rises, so observers are well placed to view the rest of the eclipse, including the beginning of the partial phase, the total phase, through to the end of the eclipse.

The more westt an observer; the Moon will rise already eclipsed at the penumbra phase

 

U1: The Moon will rise just a few moments before the partial eclipse phase begins, so observability  is still favourable. The more east an observer, a decreased value of eclipse duration can be observed, until the Moon rises almost fully eclipsed.

 

U3: The Moon rises at Total Eclipse. To the west of U3 a decreased value of the eclipse can be viewed, with maximum eclipse occurring before the Moon rises above the horizon.

 

U4: Most of the eclipse has finished. The Moon rises almost two hours after the Total Eclipse occurred. The Moon rises with the penumbra eclipse phase occurring, but this stage of the eclipse is challenging to observe and is more of an astronomical event rather than an interesting celestial event for the casual observer.

 

P4: The Moon rises just a few minutes before the penumbra phase of the eclipse ends. This stage of the celestial event is really only for astronomical measurement.

 

Click diagram of September's 2015

Total Lunar Eclipse and enlarge.

Total Lunar Eclipse Diagram, 28 September 2015

Showing the trajectory of the Moon through Earth’s penumbra and umbra, and contact times of the eclipse.

 

Ecliptic Conjuction at:

02:50:29.0  UT/GMT

02:51:38.3  TD

 

Ecliptic Conjunction is the closest approach of two celestial bodies as viewed from a third body; also known as, appulse.

 

28 September 2015 Lunar Eclipse contact times:

 

P1: 00hrs 11mins 47secs  UT/GMT

U1: 01hrs 07mins 11secs UT/GMT

U2: 02hrs 11mins 10secs UT/GMT

U3: 03hrs 23mins 05secs UT/GMT

U4:04hrs 27mins 03secs UT/GMT

P4: 05hrs 22mins 27secs UT/GMT

 

September 2015 Lunar Eclipse Eclipse durations:

Penumbral: 05hrs 10mins 41secs

Umbral:03hrs 19mins 52secs

 

Total Eclipse duration: 01hr 11mins 55secs

 

 

Total Lunar Eclipse September 2015 (appearance)

Northern Hemisphere observers. Sequence of eclipse phases.

The eclipse sequence begins with the Moon entering Earth’s penumbra:

 

P1: Penumbra eclipse begins: This phase is subtle and is not easy to observe.

 

(U1) Partial lunar eclipse begins; the eclipse becomes evident with a gradual increase in shading, and as the Moon moves deeper into the umbra it will turn a reddish tone.

 

(U2) Total Eclipse of the Moon begins and the Moon will redden, its Northern Hemisphere will appear a deeper shade due to being close to the middle of Earth’s umbra.

 

Mid Eclipse: The Moon is immersed in the deepest region of Earth’s umbra.

 

(U3) Total Eclipse ends and Partial Eclipse begins: The total eclipse phase is over and a partial eclipse occurs again; the Moon will becomes lighter on its western hemisphere.

 

(U4) Partial Eclipse ends; penumbra phase still in progress.

 

(P4) Penumbra Eclipse ends: The Moon leaves Earth’s penumbra and normal brightness returns.

Total Lunar Eclipse September 2015 (appearance)

As can be seen by looking at the eclipse diagram, the Moon passes through the lower region of Earth's penumbra and umbra, therefore (to observers in the Northern Hemisphere) the Moon will be a darker red on its northern limb, while its southern limb will be a few shades lighter.

Southern Hemisphere

To observers in the Southern hemisphere the shading of the Moon will appear the opposite way round.  

 

Southern Hemisphere observers.

The eclipse sequence is the same but appears the other way round, because from South America and other Southern Hemisphere countries, the Moon’s North Pole is pointing downwards. During the lunar eclipse the Moon will visually appear to enter Earth’s penumbra and umbra with right side of the Moon firstly reddening.  

Small diagram Total Lunar Eclipse, 28 September 2015

Click diagram of September, 28, 2015 Total Lunar Eclipse and enlarge

Lunar Eclipse Not Visible

 

No part of the lunar eclipse is visible from east Asia, New Zealand or Australia

Total Eclipse of the Moon, 28 September 2015:

belongs to;

Saros Series: 137

Member number: 28 of 81 eclipses.

 

Lunar eclipses of Saros Series 137 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each subsequent eclipse. Saros Series 137 began with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of Earth’s penumbra on Thursday 17 December 1564.  Saros Series 137 will end with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of Earth’s on Friday 20 April 2953.  The total duration of Saros Series 137 is 1,388.32 years.

 

Summary of Saros Series 137

First Eclipse occurred: Thursday 17 December 1564

at 21hrs 16mins 37secs TD

 

Last Eclipse: Friday 20 April 2953

at 11hrs 12mins 26secs  TD

 

Duration of Saros 137:    1,388.32 Years

(TD - terrestrial dynamical time)

Total-Lunar-Eclipse-Geeks-September-2015-satellite

Total Lunar Eclipse World Map Satellite image, 28 September 2015

bright regions: daylight: Dark regions: night; dawn and dusk;

dawn in the Americas and dusk in central Africa; and corresponding longitudes  

Earth satellite view at Greatest eclipse:  02:47:07.5  UT/GMT  (02:48:16.8 TD)

September 2015

Entire Lunar Eclipse visible:

 

United Kingdom; east USA; east Canada; south Mexico; Central American countries; South America countries; central-west Africa; western Europe; Iceland; Republic of Ireland; Greenland.

Lunar Eclipse at sunrise (moonset)

 

central and eastern Europe; central Africa;

Middle East; central/east Asia.

 

Total-Lunar-Eclipse-Geeks-September-2015-daigram-s Total-Lunar-Eclipse-Geeks-diagram-September-2015

 

September 2015 Lunar Eclipse

Visibility Eclipse at Moonset / Sunrise

 

P1: The penumbra phase begins just a few moments before the Moon sets. Nothing of value can be observed. It is more of a technical aspect rather than an observable event.

 

 

 

U1: The penumbral phase of the eclipse occurs with the Moon above the horizon, but the Moon sets just as the partial phase begins. The more an observer is to the west, an increased value of the partial eclipse phase can be observed.  

 

U3: The Moon sets at Total Lunar Eclipse, so until then, the eclipse can be observed. Just to the west of U3, the Moon sets just after Total Eclipse. An increased value of the eclipse can be viewed the more west an observer is placed.

 

U4: Most of the eclipse can be observed, from the penumbra phase, through to partial eclipse, Total Eclipse, and partial eclipse again. The Moon sets not long after the ending of the partial eclipse phase. An increased in value of the eclipse can be viewed  the more west an observer is placed.

 

 

P4: Almost all of the eclipse can be observed: P1; U1; U2; Greatest Eclipse; U3; and U4; with the Moon setting just a few minutes before the end of the penumbra phase of the eclipse.

 

September 2015 Entire Lunar Eclipse visible:

 

east USA; east Canada; south Mexico; Central American countries; South America countries;

central-west Africa, western Europe, Iceland, United Kingdom,

Republic of Ireland, Greenland.

USA September 2015 lunar eclipse visibility:

The entire Lunar Eclipse is visible from east to central United States

 

Lunar Eclipse at sunset (moonrise)

parts of central Mexico; central and west USA, central and west Canada

 

From some central parts of the USA and Canada, the penumbral phase of the eclipse begins with the Moon below the horizon, but this part of the eclipse is not important, and at any rate the penumbral phase is extremely difficult to detect and is more of a science astronomical measurement.

 

From western USA and Canada, the partial eclipse phase begins with the Moon still below the horizon, but the Total Eclipse phase is visible.

 

So all in all, observers in the USA, Canada, and Mexico are well placed to view the Total Lunar Eclipse.

 

(from west Alaska) the Total Lunar Eclipse occurs when the Moon is below the horizon and rises as the partial eclipse phase is ending).  Total Eclipse not visible.

 

From Hawaii; is some places the partial eclipse phase is ending as the Moon rises, and in other areas the partial eclipse phase has ended before the Moon rises.  

 

Mid to west Alaska; maximum eclipse occurs before the Moon has risen; for example: At Anchorage maximum eclipse occurs at approximately 06:47 pm Alaska Standard Time (AKST) while the Moon is still below the horizon. The Moon doesn’t rise until about 7:47 pm (AKST) during the ending of the Moon’s partial eclipse phase.

 

Honolulu, Hawaii; the Moon rises just as the partial eclipse phase ends. Moonrise; 6:27 pm Hawaii Standard Time (HAST) | Partial Eclipse phase ends; 6:27 pm (HAST).  

 

Canada, lunar eclipse visibility

East Canada, entire eclipse visible.  

 

Eclipse at Moonrise. The penumbra phase of the eclipse begins before the Moon has risen in parts of central Canadian provinces of west Manitoba, Saskatchewan, central and west Nunavut, east Northern Territories, and east Alberta.

 

The partial eclipse phase begins before the Moon has risen in west British Colombia, far north-west region of the Northwest Territories, and west Yukon Territory.

 

Despite these limitations the Total phase of the eclipse can be viewed.

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Description of lunar eclipse visibility contacts across the world

(a list of European countries from which the entire eclipse is visible appears below the moonset/moonrise chart)  

 

 

Entire Lunar Eclipse visible:

 

Every phase of the lunar eclipse (including the almost undetectable penumbral phase) is visible from; east USA; east Canada; south Mexico; Central American countries; South America countries.

 

Europe:  Greenland; central-west African countries; Iceland, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Portugal, Spain, France, Isle of Man; Faroe Islands; Denmark (but not capital Copenhagen); north-west Italy; Belgium; Netherlands; Switzerland; far-west Austria; Luxemburg; Andorra; Monaco; Liechtenstein; central to west Germany; far-south Sweden; south-and-mid-west Norway.

 

The whole of Europe and western Russia is well placed to observe the partial eclipse phase through to totality; however, countries of east Europe, the Moon will set before the ending of the partial eclipse phase, and so this phase of the eclipse cannot be observed.

 

However the penumbral phase is unimportant as far as observing the eclipse is concerned and is more of a technical scientific aspect of the event.

Click world map of Lunar Eclipse Contacts to enlarge

 

Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipse 2015

Since 1900, there has only been 5 Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipses

They were in: 1910, 1928, 1946, 1964, and 1982.

 

After September's 2015 Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipse, the next does not occur until 2033.    

 

The Total Lunar Eclipse of 28 September 2015 coincides with a so called Supermoon, meaning that the Moon is Full, while also at its perigee (closest approach to Earth during the month).

 

The last time a Total Lunar Eclipse occurred at the same time as a Supermoon was more than 30 years ago in 1982. A Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipse does not happen that often. Since 1900 a Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipse has only occurred five times.

 

A lot of stuff happens on planet Earth between Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipses, image the way people lived and the changing technology between the dates of the five previous Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipses from 1900, which were in 1910, 1928, 1946, 1964, and 1982. Even since 1982 to 2015, technology and computer have become much more advanced and powerful.

 

After the Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipse 2015, the next does not occur until 2033.

End of Tetrad season:

A Tetrad season is four consecutive Total Lunar Eclipses.

 

The 2015 Total Lunar Eclipse is the fourth and final eclipse of the year.

It also ends a series known as a tetrad.

 

The September 2015 Total Lunar is the last of four consecutive total lunar eclipses; a series known as a tetrad.  

 

A Tetrad series is quite rare and the frequency of Tetrads is variable over time. From 1582 to 1908 there were no tetrads, while there are 17 tetrads between 1909 to 2156.

 

The next Tetrad sequence doesn't occur until 25 April 2032.

 

A tetrad season is 565 years. Tetrad seasons are caused by the eccentricity of Earth's orbit in relation to the timing of eclipse seasons.  Earth’s eccentricity of orbit is decreasing and therefore when Earth has ‘zero’ eccentricity; tetrads will no longer be possible.

Total Lunar Eclipse 27 - 28 September 2015 - local timing chart of event

 

Astronomical events are recorded in UT/GMT.

UT/GMT is a universal standard time used to avoid ambiguity and confusion of celestial events.

However, for your convenience we have this chart of local time zones to assist you in your observations of the lunar eclipse.

click time zone chart to enlarge

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Greenwich, London, United Kingdom international reference time - GMT/UT

Time Zone abbreviation Key

Time Zones North America

 

GMT: Greenwich Mean Time

ADT: Atlantic Daylight Time      (GMT -3 hours)

EDT: Eastern Daylight Time     (GMT -4 hours)

CDT: Central Daylight Time      (GMT -5 hours)

MDT: Mountain Daylight Time  (GMT - 6 hours)

MST: Mountain Standard Time (GMT -7 hours)

PDTPacific Daylight Time         (GMT - 7 hours)

AKDTAlaska Daylight Time      (GMT - 8 hours)

HSTHawaii Standard Time       (GMT - 10 hours)

Time Zones South America

 

PET: Peru Time (GMT -5 hours)

BOT: Bolivia Time (GMT -4 hours)

AMST: Amazon Summer Time (GMT -3 hours)

ART: Argentina Tome: (GMT -3 hours)

Time Zones Europe

 

WET: Western European Time (GMT  +0 hours)

WEST: Western European Time (GMT +1 hour)

CET: Central European Time (GMT +1 Hour)

CEST: Central European Summer Time (GMT +2 hours)

EET: Eastern European Time (GMT +2 hours)

MSK -1: Russia Kaliningrad Time (GMT +2 hours)

MSD: Moscow Daylight Time (GMT +3 hours)

Supermoon Total Lunar Eclipse video

Dallas, Texas, USA.

Texas USA affords us a good reference point for lunar eclipse observers in the USA. States to the east of Dallas can view the entire lunar eclipse (including the faint, almost undetectable penumbral phase.

 

Fort Worth lies just inside the dividing line of the penumbral visibility limit, and from here the Moon rises with the penumbra phase already in progress (the penumbra phase begins about 4 minutes before the Moon rises). The penumbral phase is not important for observation, and the rest of the whole eclipse sequence is visible.

 

Tucson, Arizona, USA,

is just inside the dividing line of the partial eclipse visibility limit. From Tucson, the partial eclipse phase begins about 4 minutes before the Moon rises, and from Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, the partial phase begins about 7 minutes before the Moon has risen.

From Les Vegas the partial eclipse begins approximately 22 minutes before the Moon has risen, and from San Francisco, California, the partial eclipse phase begins about 52 minutes before the Moon has risen. From San Francisco the partial eclipse phase begins at 6:07 pm, (PDT) but the Moon does not rise until 6:59 pm (PDT), however the beginning of the total eclipse begins a few minutes later at about 7:11 pm (PDT) with mid eclipse at 7:47pm (PDT).

 

It can therefore be deduced that the more west a person is in the USA, reduces visibility, but nevertheless, the whole of the USA (except parts of  Alaska and Hawaii) can observe the Total Eclipse phase of the eclipse.

A rough guide to visibility across the USA and Canada.

Visibility is generally good and all parts of the USA (and most of Canada) can view the Total Lunar Eclipse (with the exception of extreme northwest Canada, parts of Alaska, and Hawaii) where visibility is poor to ‘observability’ non-existent.

If you miss  September's 2015 Total Lunar Eclipse, there are no Total lunar eclipse during 2016 or 2017, the next Total Lunar Eclipse occurs 31 January 2018, followed by another on 27 July 2018.  

Total Lunar Eclipse astronomical date 28 September 2015.

Mid eclipse local time Europe 28 Sep 2015

 

The Total Lunar Eclipse occurs in Europe in the early hours of morning on the 28 September 2015.

Local mid-eclipse times:  

 

Europe: GMT / WET 2:47am | WEST / CET 3:47

CEST / EET/ MSK-1 Russia Kaliningrad Time 4:47am

EEST / FET / MSK 5:47am.

Total Lunar Eclipse astronomical date 28 September 2015.

Mid eclipse local time USA/Canada/South America 27 Sep 2015

 

Mid-eclipse occurs in the USA/Canada/South America in the evening of the 27th September 2015.

Local mid-eclipse times:  

 

PDT/MST 7:47pm | MDT 8:47pm | CDT/PET 9:47pm | EDT/BOT 10:47pm | ADT/AMST/ART 11:47pm.]

 

The eclipse begins in the USA, Canada, and South America on the 27 September 2015, and in some time zones the eclipse ends on the 28th September. Times zones in which the eclipse begins on the 27th and ends on the 28th are as follows: CDT/PET | EDT/BOT | ADT/AMST/ART

a-small-photo-total-lunar-eclipse-geeks

The reason why the Moon turns red during a Total Lunar Eclipse

 

In brief: Sunlight is composed of a range of different wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. When sunlight reaches Earth’s atmosphere it gets bounced in all directions by particles of dust and water droplets.  The light also interacts with air molecules. Air molecules such as nitrogen and oxygen are smaller than wavelengths of visible light and scatter short wavelengths, such as blue, more strongly than other wavelengths. This is what makes the sky above our heads appear blue during daytime.

 

 

Long wavelengths of light, such as red, are least affected by molecules of air, and this reddish light is refracted (bent) by Earth’s atmosphere and is cast into Space. During a total lunar eclipse, when the Moon passes through this orange/reddish light, the Moon significantly changes its normal shade of white to a orange/reddish hue.

 

The amount of orange/copper-red/ hue of the Moon is also affected by the condition of Earth’s volcanic activity, dust, humidity, and temperature.

 

So now you have a pretty good idea, why the Moon appears a reddish/orange hue in a Total Lunar Eclipse.

click image of Total Lunar Eclipse to enlarge,

and if you want, save it to your computer for future reference.