All you ever wanted to know about eclipses and other celstial bodies
Map credit: NASA visible Earth/Terra/MODIS/DMPS city lights.
Eclipse Contacts: Times
P1: First Penumbral contact: 22:34:14 GMT/UT
P4: Final Penumbral contact: 02:53:29 GMT/UT
Greatest Eclipse at: 00:43:52.9 GMT/UT.
Penumbral Eclipse Duration: P1 to P4: 04h19m14.9s
Eclipse predictions 11th February 2017 lunar eclipse using
Delta Value: ΔT: 70 seconds
Click to diagram enlarge:
Diagram of the Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 11th February 2017 showing the Shadows of Earth; the outer fainter Penumbral and the inner darker Umbra.
Why we use Greenwich Meantime – GMT / Universal Time – UT
On EclipseGeeks, unless otherwise stated, as is standard with astronomical timings, they are given in GMT Greenwich Meantime (GMT) / Universal Time (UT). A standard reference time is used to avoid ambiguity to one’s local standard time (and where used) the variants of winter and summer time changing. It can all become confusing if observers record an event occurring in their own particular local time, while in another country another observer records the same event occurring at a different time. Astronomers need to simplify their observational data, so that each event is logged under a single calendar time and date. For conversion to your local time you can use this world time map.
Viewing a Penumbral Lunar Eclipse:
During a penumbral lunar eclipse, the Moon passes through Earth's outer fainter penumbral shadow, as showen in the above diagram. These types of lunar eclipses are faint and pale. Penumbral eclipses are difficult to see, and even with the use of a telescope, are challenging to view because the change of tonal appearance is in general very subtle and hard to detect. They are academic and technical as opposed to a splendid celestial event.
Observing the Penumbral Eclipse in a Pragmatic,
sensible and realistic way.
The first and last primary contacts of a penumbral eclipse (P1 and P4), including the early and late stages of the penumbral lunar event, without optical aid, are invisible to human eye acuity. An experienced observer may be able to detect shading or dimming of the lunar surface once a penumbral magnitude greater than ˜0.6 is reached. Nevertheless don't be put off, the Moon is always worth a look.
photographer Navneeth Chandrasekaran
Penumbral lunar eclipse: Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
This particular image is under the:
A similar deep penumbra eclipse of the Moon occurred on 28th November 2012. In addition you might want to take a look at interesting photographs of the event that can be viewed at:
If you click on the map, you can enlarge this Penumbra Lunar Eclipse World Map
Visible Earth Satellite Image
The Visible Earth satellite image shows the entire penumbra footprint of time at Greatest Eclipse.
Where can the lunar eclipse be seen?
The Entire Event Penumbral Lunar Eclipse is visible from: Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, east Bolivia, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, and east Venezuela. All Central American countries, Cuba, and the Caribbean islands; far north-east USA; east Canada; the African Continent, the whole of Europe, central and west Russia, and the Middle East.
A Penumbral Lunar Eclipse at Moonrise is visible from: (the west) South American Continent, central and west United States, and central and west Canada; from these regions the Moon will be rising at the time of the eclipse.
A Penumbral Lunar Eclipse at Moonset is visible from: east Russia and the Far East
No part of the eclipse is visible from Australia or New Zealand.
Penumbra Lunar Eclipse World Map, 11th February 2017
An Example Diagram of a Penumbra Lunar Eclipse - click to enlarge
Penumbra Lunar Eclipse (click diagram of lunar event to enlarge.)
During a penumbral lunar eclipse the Moon passes through the penumbra outer diffuse shadow of Earth. Sometimes during these types of penumbral lunar eclipses the Moon passes through the outer edge of the penumbra producing a very weak eclipse with most of the Moon outide the penumbra shadow being illuminated by the Sun.
In the case of the February 2017 lunar eclipse, the Moon passes deeply through Earth's outer shadow and at 98.8% is almost completely immersed in Earth's penumbra with just 1.1% remaining illuminated in full sunlight.
Diagram Saros Series 114:
Click to enlarge revealing more details.
Comprises of 71 eclipses in the series.
First eclipse: Saturday 13th May 0971
Middle eclipse: (number 35) Sunday 24th May 1584
Final eclipse: Saturday 22nd June 2233
Saros Series 114 duration: 1262.11 Years
First Eclipse of the Year 2017
The first eclipse of 2017 is a penumbral lunar eclipse occurring on the 11th February 2017 with Greatest Eclipse at 00:43:52.9 GMT/UT. The Moon's orbital trajectory passes through the southern part of Earth’s penumbral shadow. This particular eclipse is a deep penumbral eclipse and has duration of 04h19m14.9s; a Gamma value of: -1.0255 and a magnitude of 0.9884. This February Eclipse of the Moon precedes by two weeks in advance of the Solar Eclipse of 26th February 2017. and there is a second lunar eclipse (the third in total) which is a partial eclipse of the Moon on 07th August 2017.
Lunar Saros Seires 114
The February 2017 penumbral lunar eclipse belongs to lunar Saros Series 114 and is member number 59 of 71. The sequence first began in the year 0971 and will end in 2233. You can read more and look at a diagram of the sequence of Saros Series 114 in a section lower-down the page.
Visibility of the Penumbral Eclipse of the Moon February 2017
Unlike Solar Eclipses where you have to take eye safety precautions to view the eclipse, lunar eclipses are perfectly safe to watch, and Total Lunar Eclipses are majestically beautiful. A Total Lunar Eclipse occurs on 31st January 2018.
Eclipses of the Moon are visible anywhere on the night-side of Earth when the Moon is above the horizon at the time of the eclipse. The Lunar Eclipse of February 2017 is however a penumbral lunar eclipse, and even though the Moon passes deeply through Earth’s outer shadow (the penumbra) in general eclipses of this type are subtle and challenging to observe. A similar deep penumbra eclipse of the Moon to this one occurred on 28th November 2012. In addition you might want to take a look at interesting photographs of the 2012 event that can be viewed by going to: Photos Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 28 November 2012.
During this lunar eclipse the Moon moves into Earth’s southern area of the penumbral shadow with a maximum of 98.9% of the Moon’s diameter obscured, with 1.1% remaining in full sunlight.
The uneclipsed area of the Moon’s South Pole will remain bright, while the most northerly area of the moon will be very close to, but not in, the umbra. Therefore in absolute physical terms there will be subtle shading on the Moon’s northern limb, gaining in brightness towards the Moon’s southern region, but actually observing the subtle shading may be a different matter.
The Event falls just short of being a Total Penumbral Lunar Eclipse,
This event is almost a rare Total Penumbral Lunar Eclipse, where the Moon passes 100% within the penumbra, but it falls short of being completely immersed, nevertheless at 98.95% it is a deep penumbral eclipse of the Moon.
Entire Penumbral Lunar Eclipse is visible from these countries:
The entire penumbral lunar eclipse of Febrary 2017 is visible from parts of the Continent of South America, namely; most of Brazil (except the north-west region) of the country; Uruguay, Paraguay, east Bolivia, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, and east Venezuela.
All Central American countries, Cuba, and the Caribbean islands; far north-east USA; east Canada; the African Continent, the whole of Europe, central and west Russia, and the Middle East.
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse at Moonrise
The west South American Continent, central and west United States of America, and central and west Canada, the Moon will be rising at the time of the eclipse.
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse at Moonset
East Russia and the Far East; the penumbral eclipse occurs as the Moon sets.
No part of the eclipse is visible from Australia or New Zealand.
Diagram of the Sequence of Saros Series 114
71 eclipses over a duration of 1262.11 Years.
Penumbra Eclipse, February 2017 belongs
to Saros Series 114, member number 59 of 71.
The Penumbra Eclipse of the Moon, February 2017 belongs to Saros Series 114 and is member number 59 of 71. All eclipses in Saros Series 114 occur with the Moon at Ascending Node. The first eclipse in the series began on the 13th May 0971 with the Moon southern polar region grazing the northern edge of Earth’s penumbra.
Saros Series 114 moves southward
with respect to Earth's Umbra / Penumbra
Each subsequent eclipse moves southward and lunar-series 114 will end with the Moon’s northern polar region grazing the southern edge of Earth’s outer fainter penumbral shadow on 22nd June 2233.
Summary of Saros 114 Sequence:
First Eclipse was shallow with the Moon’s southern polar region grazing the northern edge of Earth’s penumbra on Saturday 13th May 0971.
Saros Series 114 comprises 71 eclipses spanning 1262.11 Years. The order of sequence in which they occur are: 8 Penumbral: 19 Partial: 13 Total: 12 Partial: and: 19 Penumbral.
Saros Series 114 will end with the Moon’s northern polar region grazing the southern edge of Earth’s outer fainter penumbral shadow on Saturday 22nd June 2233.
First Eclipse of the Year 2017 - Penumbral Eclipse of the Moon
Photo comparison of a Penumbra Lunar Eclipse before and during eclipse event; as you can observe the difference is subtle. Can you easily spot the difference between an un-eclipsed Moon and a Penumbra Eclipse?
Click to enlarge and reveal the answer.
If viewing conditions are suitable:
If viewing conditions are suitable it is still worthwhile having a look, just to see if you can see any difference in the shading of the Moon during the latter stages of the eclipse. The Moon during the February 2017 penumbral eclipse passes deeply through Earth’s penumbra, immersed at 98.9%, so the percentage of the Moon in the penumbra is higher than in many other penumbral eclipses, so you might just be able to detect a change in tonal shading.
The Moon’s northern limb passes close to Earth’s umbra, and the South Pole of the Moon will be in full sunlight, so the light wavelength reflected back from the South Pole, in scientific measured instruments, will be brighter than the Moon’s North Polar Region; if you can see the difference yourself, you can be congratulated because you must have great eyesight, and if you can’t well join the crowds, most people have difficulty noticing tonal brightness change in a penumbral lunar eclipse. Good luck.
Faint Shading of the Moon during a Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
The wonderful photograph above of a penumbral lunar eclipse, as observed from Quezon City, Philippines, was captured on 28th November 2012, photographed by Raven Yu, a keen amateur astronomer from The Philippines. Did you click on the photograph to reveal an enlarged image? Some of you may have been correct in detecting the eclipsed Moon. At maximum eclipse there is faint shading to the Moon’s lower left region.
The faint shading of the Moon may have been spotted by some of you in a side-by-side comparison; however spotting the difference as it is occurring is likely to be much more challenging, but it’s worth a go; and if you like, send your images to our facebook page; other fellow eclipse watchers would be interested is seeing your images.
Photo credit: Raven Yu: click photo for large image: